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שיעורים לפי נושאים
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פרשת תולדות – יעקב ועשו: העיקר והטפל

בפרשת השבוע מתייצבים זה מול זה עשו ויעקב. האחים התאומים הם שני הפכים, שתי גישות שונות ואפילו הפוכות איך להתנהל בעולם. וכך מתאר את הדברים רבינו בחיי:

"ויהי עשו איש יודע ציד איש שדה ויעקב איש תם יושב אהלים – כוון הכתוב לומר, כי אע"פ שהיו האחים האלה תאומים נוצרו בבטן בזמן אחד, אין מעשיהם דומים זה לזה, אבל הם שני הפכים, וכל מידותיהם חלוקות זו מזו, כי עשו נמשך אחר תענוגי הגוף ויעקב נמשך אחר עצת הנפש

ידוע כי השתדלותו של אדם במאכל ובמשתה והיותו משתעשע בציד שהם תענוגי הגוף בעולם הזה, הלא היא סיבה לבזות עבודת השי"ת ויראתו, לעשותם טפל ותענוגי הגוף עקר, וזאת הייתה מדתו של עשו, הוא שאמר: 'ויאכל וישת ויקם וילך ויבז עשו את הבכורה', ובעל מדה זו מוצא עצמו עקוב (מרומה) לסוף, הוא שאמר עשו: 'ויעקבני זה פעמים את בכורתי לקח והנה עתה לקח ברכתי', ואם יטעם נופת וצוף בתענוגים אינו אלא לפי שעה, והוא עתיד שידאג ויתנחם באחריתו ויצטער מאד על זה, הוא שכתוב: 'ויצעק צעקב גדולה ומרה', וכן הזכיר שלמה ע"ה בענין רדיפת התענוגים: (משלי ה, ג – ד) 'נופת תטופנה שפתי זרה' וגו', "ואחריתה מרה כלענה", זה דרכו של עשו וכל התומכים אשוריו.

אבל דרכו ומדתו של יעקב בהפך זה, כי "איש תם" הפך "יודע ציד", ו"יושב אהלים" הפך "איש שדה", ועוד כי מה שרצה עשו לקנות רצה יעקב למכור, והוא רדיפת התאוות ובקשת תענוגי העולם המשילם לנזיד עדשים, לפי שטוב העולם ושלוותו וכבודו אינו אלא גלגל כעדשה שהיא עגולה, וע"כ רצה למכור ולהחליף חיי שעה בחיי העולם, היא עבודת הש"י שהיתה בבכורות".

גישתו של עשו היא שהעיקר הוא עולם החומר, ההנאות הגשמיות. לעיתים נראה שמי שעוסק בהנאות החומריות שמח ומאושר יותר, וחי יותר בעוצמה, אבל האמת היא שאלו הנאות רגעיות מאד, ובסופו של דבר האדם יראה את חוסר התוחלת, ויצטער על בזבוז חייו לריק, הוא ירגיש מרומה, רימו אותו, עבדו עליו, סיפרו לו שאלו החיים האמיתיים, אך הוא מגלה שאין בהם שום דבר.

לעומתו יעקב מבין שעיקר החיים, השמחה והעונג האמיתי הוא העונג הנפשי והרוחני, ושככל שאדם ישקיע בעולמות הפנימיים, באידאליים האלוקיים הוא יחוש שמחה וסיפוק.

חשוב להדגיש שאין הדברים אמורים בעולם הבא, אלא בעולם הזה!

אם נתבונן במציאות בעיניים כנות ונשווה אדם שהלך לבית מלון חמישה כוכבים, עם כל התענוגות וההנאות שהמקום מציע, לאדם שבאותם הימים ישקיע ויתאמץ ללילות כימים לעזור לחבר במצוקה ויצליח לסייע לו. אם נפגוש את שני האנשים שבוע אחרי שחזרו לשיגרה, מי יהיה יותר שמח? מי יחוש תחושת אושר פנימי? מי ירגיש סיפוק מלאות פנימית? – אין ספק בכך.

הוא הדין בשני אנשים שאחד מבלה במסעדה עם מאכלים הנוגעים בנימי ביטנו, והשני מבלה בלימוד תורה הנוגע לנימי נפשו ונשמתו. אם נבחן את הדברים לאחר יומיים איזו חוויה יותר משמחת וממלאת חיים, עוצמה, אושר ומשמעות? – אין שאלה כלל!

חשוב לחדד כי ההנאות החומריות יכולות להוסיף לחיים כשהן מתלוות לעיקר, אז יש בכך תוספת שמחה ועונג, אך כשהן הופכות לעיקר ולמרכז, למטרה ולתכלית, הם חסרות טעם וערך, כפי שראינו בלשונו הנפלאה של רבינו בחיי: "…הלא היא סיבה לבזות עבודת השי"ת ויראתו, לעשותם טפל ותענוגי הגוף עיקר".

עשו באופן עיקבי, הופך את הטפל לעיקר, והעיקר לטפל – זו אולי כוונת חז"ל ששמו בפיו של עשו את השאלה: "היה שואל לאביו היאך מעשרין את המלח ואת התבן, והיה יצחק אוהבו סבור בו שהוא מחמיר במצות, והוא לא היה שואל אלא לרמות את אביו", מדוע דווקא שאלות אלו?

נראה לומר שהמלח והתבן, הם דברים שימושיים, אבל הם הטפל, המלח הוא מתבל את העיקר, הקש הוא מגן ושומר את החיטה, אבל שניהם אינם העיקר אך אצל עשו יש בלבול בין העיקר לטפל.

עשו וסיעתו נמשלים בנביא לקש: "והיה בית יעקב אש, ובית יוסף להבה, ובית עשו לקש", שמביטים בשדה החיטה רואים בעיקר את הקש, הוא תופס מקום, מרחב ונפח, אך הוא לא העיקר העיקר הוא גרעיני החיטה הקטנים המתחבאים, קל מאד, לטעות ולחשוב שהקש הוא עיקרי.

עשו נראה כאלו יש לו מקום גדול ונרחב, הוא יגיע לעשו עם ארבע מאות איש, בגימטרייה ק"ש, מחנה גדול, אבל כל המחנה הזה הוא מחנה של קש, תופס נפח גדול אך חסר תועלת ונשרף ברגע אחד.

העבודה שלנו היא להצליח לעסוק בעיקר, לעסוק בשמחה האמיתית, ללבן ולברר כל הזמן מה העיקר ומה הטפל, כלשונו הנפלאה של השפ"א:

" והנה יצחק הי' בחי' שדה ולכן הוצרך יעקב ובניו לברר התבואה מתערובת קש של עשו ואלופיו".

יהי רצון שנזכה ללכת בדרכו של יעקב להשקיע את כוחותינו בעיקר, לדעת מהי השמחה האמיתית והשלימה, ולשמוח בה.

 

 

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