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שיעורים לפי נושאים
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פרשת משפטים – הלוואה מול צדקה

אחרי המאורע האדיר של מתן תורה, הולכת התורה ומפרטת את ההתנהלות הנגזרת מכוח הדרכתה של תורה.

בשבוע שעבר עסקנו באיסור ע"ז, וכמדומה לי שהדבר השני שמזהירים עליו התורה והנביאים, הוא החסד, המשפט והצדק.

מגמת התורה לתקן את העולם והתיקון הגדול ביותר הוא הקמת חברה של חסד, משפט וצדק.

ובתוך המצוות האלו רצוני להתייחס לאחר המצוות שלענ"ד מעמידות חברה מתוקנת:

"אם כסף תלווה את עמי את העני עמך לא תהיה לו כנושה לא תשימון עליו נשך"

מלשון הפסוק נראה כאלו אין שום מצווה להלוות אלא רק אמירה שאם אתה מלווה לא תיקח ריבית, אך באמת ההלוואה – חובה גמורה ומצוה מפורשת היא בתורה. "כי פתוח תפתח את ידך לו והעבט תעביטנו די מחסורו אשר יחסר לו", וכפי שאומר רש"י בשם חז"ל: "כל אם ואם שבתורה – רשות, חוץ משלושה, וזה אחד מהן", אלא שיש לשאול, אם כוונת התורה לחייב את נתינת ההלוואה, מדוע נכתבה כאן לשון בלתי מחייבת?

לומד מכאן המהר"ל לימוד יסודי וז"ל:

"יש לפרש מה שכתב לשון "אם" אף על גב דחובה הם, מפני שאם יעשה מחובה כאילו מקיים גזירת המלך – אין הדבר לרצון להקב"ה, וצריך שיעשה מרצונו, ואז כשיעשה מרצונו הוא מרוצה…אם הלווה כסף כאילו מקיים גזירת המלך, אין זה מצוה, כי צריך שיהיה מצות הלוואה מרצונו בלב טוב, כדכתיב אף בנתינה "ולא ירע לבבך".

כלומר, מצוות ההלוואה צריכה להיעשות מתוך אכפתיות ואהבה, ולא כמצווה.

לכאורה מצוות ההלוואה קלה הרבה יותר, ממצוות הצדקה, אף על פי כן, כמדומה לי, שרבים שנותנים צדקה לא מקיימים את מצוות ההלוואה, ויש להתבונן מדוע? מדוע קשה לאדם להלוות יותר מאשר לתת צדקה?

צדקה היא מערכת יחסים חד צדדית וחד פעמית, אני נותן לעני, ובזה תמו יחסינו, לעומת זאת הלוואה היא מערכת יחסית ארוכת טווח, שמצריכה קשר, סבלנות, הבנה ואמון, זהו דבר מורכב הרבה יותר, הן מצד המקבל והן מצד הנותן.

הלוואה היא מעשה שעשוי ליצור מערכת יחסים מתוחה ולא-בריאה בין בני אדם, "עבד לווה לאיש מלווה".

לענ"ד דווקא בגלל אותה מערכת יחסים, שיש בה חיבור וקשר, גדולה מצוות הלוואה יותר מן הצדקה (כדברי הגמרא שבת סג.), מצוות הצדקה מעמידה נותן מקבל, ויוצרת פער גדול ביניהם, אך ההלוואה יוצרת חיבור, כולנו נזקקים זה לזה, זה טבעו של עולם כדברי המדרש: "בא וראה כל בריותיו של הקדוש ברוך הוא לווים זה מזה, היום לווה מן הלילה והלילה מן היום…".

זהו הקושי וגם היופי של מצוות הלוואה, לאנשים מאד קשה שכספם נמצא אצל אחרים, ולענ"ד צריך להשתחרר מהתפיסה הרכושנית הזאת, מצוות ההלוואה יוצרת מצב שבחברה אין מעמדות מקובעים של נותן ומקבל, אלא גם העני, יכול להתחיל לבנות עסק, כי יהיה לו את ההון ההתחלתי, כפי שיש לעשיר, בלא שהעשיר ישעבדו על ידי ריבית, וישמור כל הזמן על המרחק הכלכלי ביניהם, מצוות הלוואה יוצרת מערכות יחסים, של בניין הדדי, כך פועלת כל הבריאה בתיקונה וכך גם אנו צריכים לפעול.

יהי רצון שנזכה להקים חברה מתוקנת שבה ההון פועל ועוזר ומסייע לכל החברה כולה.

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