חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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שפת אמת לפרשת משפטים – הקדמת הנעשה לנשמע

שפת אמת לפרשת משפטים – הקדמת הנעשה לנשמע

"ואלה המשפטים אשר תשים לפניהם – …גם ברש"י ז"ל מה הראשונים מסיני כו'. ופרשנו עפ"י דברי מו"ז ז"ל שגם משפטי ה' אף שיש בהם טעמים. עכ"ז כל הטעמים ע"י רצונו ית' והוא העיקר. והטעמים נמשכים אחר רצונו. וז"ש שהם מסיני. אף שהשכל מבין שכך צריך להיות עכ"ז הכל ע"י שכך גזרה חכמתו ית'… וכן צריך להיות ציווי השי"ת קודם לשכל האדם וזהו לפניהם כנ"ל. ובנ"י הקדימו נעשה לנשמע פי' שהי' חביב אצלם יותר מה שזוכין לעשות רצון עליון ממה שיבינו הטעם של המצוה. ועי"ז זכו שיבינו גם הטעמים כי מקודם ניתנו הדיברות אח"כ המשפטים. וכ"כ מגיד דבריו הוא הנהגתו יתברך בלי הבנת הטעמים אח"כ חוקיו ומשפטיו כו' וכן הוא בכל מצוה בפרטות כמו שמקיים האדם בפשיטות בלי השגה כראוי רק שרוצה לקיים מצות השי"ת זוכה אח"כ להבין הטעם… אך כי באמת העיקר לקיים מצות השי"ת בלי הבנת הטעמים. רק שהשי"ת אמר שבנ"י זכו ע"י הקדמת נעשה לנשמע שיבינו גם הטעמים כנ"ל:" (תרל"ד)

ידועים דברי המדרש על אות ו' החיבור במילה הראשונה בפרשה האומר: "ואלה המשפטים" – מה עשרת הדיברות הראשונות נאמרו מסיני גם המצוות האחרונות בפרשת משפטים הזו נאמרו מסיני". הקושיה שעולה לאור דברי המדרש היא מדוע לנו לחשוב חלילה שפרשת משפטים אינה ניתנה בסיני?

השפת אמת מסביר זאת על ידי מתן ההבדל בין חק למשפט. חוק זוהי מצווה אלוקית שאין לנו יכולת אנושית להבין את טעמה, כדוגמת איסור שעטנז ובשר וחלב יחדיו. ומשפט זהו מצווה שאנו, בני אנוש,  יכולים לנסות להבין מהו טעמה, כדוגמת איסור לא תרצח ומצוות כיבוד הורים. בשל כך, מסביר השפת אמת כי פרשת משפטים היא אכן פרשה בה קיימות הרבה מצוות שניתן להבין את טעמן – אך אל לנו להקדים את הנשמע לנעשה! כלומר, מבחינה אמונית הבסיס לעשיית המצוות צריך להיות הציווי האלוקי, ורק אח"כ הסיבה שאנו משערים לעשייתה. האיסור לא לגנוב הוא ציווי מובן על מנת לשמור את הסדר החברתי הקיים, אולם התוקף של מניעת ביצוע הגניבה הוא האמונה בבורא העולם שציווה על כך.

לאור זאת, עולה השאלה: היכן 'המקום' של המוסר האנושי במידה וגם משפטי התורה הם קודם כל חוקים?

מציין השפת אמת, כי זהו עומק המדרש. התורה היא ציווי אלוקי בחוקיה ומשפטיה. האדם צריך לבצע את התורה כגזרת מלך, ולא ע"פ שיקולים אישיים. במידה ואכן היו מקיימים את משפטי התורה לפי טעמם – קיומם היה תלוי ועומד בהסכמת מוסר האדם לטיב הטעם, ויתכן כי 'בטל הטעם בטלה המצווה'.

ואדרבא מוסיף השפת אמת כי הקדמת "נעשה ונשמע" היא זו שמאפשרת לאדם להבין את טעם המצווה. ברגע שהאדם מנמיך את קומתו כלפי הבורא שנוכח במרכז חייו – אז יכול הוא להיפגש עם טעמי התורה. וזהו עומק דברי בנ"י: "נעשה ונשמע" . הנשמע, קרי, טעם המצווה היה מובן רק לאחר שהחליטו לעשות את המצווה עקב ציווי הבורא.

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מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

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