חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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דבר תורה לפרשת צו – איסור הגזל בקרבן העולה

בתחילת פרשתנו אנו נפגשים עם קרבן העולה, כפי שנאמר: "צַו אֶת-אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת-בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר, זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה…". קרבן זה הוא המיוחד מבין שאר הקורבנות. בעוד שאר הקרבנות נאכלים כדוגמת: קרבן חטאת ע"י הכהן, וקרבן השלמים ע"י המקריב – קרבן העולה מוקרב כולו לה'. מכאן השם 'עֹלָה' מלשון עלייה טוטלית לשמיים, מבלי התערבות אפילו חלקית של האדם.

בהמשך למה שלמדנו בשבת שעברה אודות המשמעות הרוחנית של הקרבן, שאינה דבר טכני אלא בראש ובראשנה רוחנית, כך שההקרבה היא ביטוי לצימאון הנשמתי של האדם לקרבת ה', נוכל להסיק כי קרבן העולה הוא התבטלות הגמורה של האדם כלפי בוראו, ללא התערבות עצמית. האדם מביא את כולו לה' אשר מתבטא בקרבן.

גזל גשמי ורוחני

על קורבן העולה דורש המדרש (תנחומא, ס' ב):

"…כי אני ה' אהב משפט שונא גזל בעולה (ישעיה סא ח), אפילו בעולה, מה כתיב למעלה מן הענין, והיה כי יחטא ואשם והשיב את הגזלה אשר גזל (ויקרא ה כג), ואחר כך זאת תורת העולה, אם בקשת להקריב קרבן לא תגזול לאדם כלום, למה כי אני ה' אהב משפט שונא גזל בעולה, ואימתי אתה מעלה עולה ואני מקבלה, כשתנקה כפיך מן הגזל. אמר דוד מי יעלה בהר ה' ומי יקום במקום קדשו נקי כפים ובר לבב (תהלים כד ג ד)…".

כלומר, המדרש למד מסמיכות הפרשיות כי אסור להביא קורבן העולה מן הגזל.

ואם נשאל:

  • הרי זה די פשוט, לא? גם שאר הקרבנות אסור להביא מגזל, אז מה השתנה דווקא כאן?

נוכל להסיק מהשאלה דבר עקרוני המיוחד בקרבן העולה.

אכן, שאר הקרבנות גם אסורים מלהביא מהגזל, אך סמיכות הפרשיות מלמדת כי איסור הגזל בולט דווקא אצל קרבן העולה כיוון שהיסוד הרוחני של העולה עומד בניגוד מוחלט לגזל. גזל הוא לקיחת דבר שאינו שלך, ובבעלות האחר. ופשוט שהגזל לא מתאים לקרבנות שאמורים לבטא את הרצון לקרבת ה', ולזה צריך להביא משהו שהוא שלך, בבעלותך – זהו גזל גשמי, בהמה שגנבת מחברך.

בקרבן עולה מתחדש כי קיים גם גזל רוחני – נפשי. גם אם הבהמה שלך שרכשת בכספך המלא, בגלל שהקרבן הזה מבטא את ההתבטלות הגמורה שלך מול הבורא, אתה צריך להיות פשוט אתה! אימוץ תכונות, מידות שאינם חלק מזהותך האמיתית – זהו גזל רוחני, וגם הוא פסול לקרבן.

בשאר הקרבנות המשלבים את החיבור בין שמיים וארץ, בין האדם לבוראו ע"י הקרבת חלק מהבהמה ואכילת חלקה האחר, די להסתפק בבהמה שהיא שלך כי אתה אוכל את הבהמה כפי אישיותך הנוכחית גם אם אינה מושלמת… אך, קרבן העולה הוא בעצם ביטול העצמיות שלך, ואם אתה אימצת לאישיותך דבר שהוא לא שלך.. הדבר מהווה גזל ולא תוכל להקריב.

לכן, מסיים המדרש בדברי דוד המלך על תכונות טובות המהוות את המפתח לכניסה לבית המקדש: "מי יעלה בהר ה' ומי יקום במקום קדשו נקי כפים ובר לבב (תהלים כד ג ד)"

שבת שלום

 

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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