חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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דבר תורה לפרשת ויקרא – אדם כי יקריב

בשעה טובה מתחילים אנו חומש חדש, שכבר בתחילתו מעלה תמיהה גדולה, וכך נאמר בפסוק ב:

"דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אָדָם כִּי יַקְרִיב מִכֶּם קָרְבָּן לַה' מִן הַבְּהֵמָה מִן הַבָּקָר וּמִן הַצֹּאן תַּקְרִיבוּ אֶת קָרְבַּנְכֶם"

שאלה ראשונה: נקודת המוצא – למה התורה לא מצווה להקריב כפי שמצווה בשאר המצוות? אם אדם לא מצווה, למה שבכלל ירצה להקריב קורבן לה'??

שאלה שנייה: נוסח – למה התורה לא משתמשת במילה 'איש' כפי שמצוי בד"כ ברחבי התורה, ובחרה דווקא את המילה 'אדם'?

שאיפה לקרבת אלוקים

בכדי לענות על שאלות אלו, נתבונן בקרבן הראשון בהיסטוריה האנושית של קין והבל. לאחר שגורשו אדם וחווה מגן העדן, נולדו להם קין והבל וכשהם גדלו הם בחרו להביא קורבן.

וכמובן שעולה השאלה: מדוע?? מי ציווה אותם לעשות זאת?

מכאן צריכים אנו להבין כי התורה אינה מספרת סיפורים בעלמא, אלא משקפת את יסודות המציאות ואת הלכי הרוח האנושיים. אכן, קין והבל לא צוו להקריב – אלא הביאו מעצמם, מנטייתם הטבעית להביא קרבן לאלוקים. יש בנו, בני האדם שאיפה טבעית מעצם טבענו להתקרב לבורא, והבאת הקרבן היא ביטוי מובהק לכך.

מאחורי הדברים עומדת ההנחה כי האדם מורכב מחומר ורוח, גוף ונשמה. האדם קרוץ החומר קיבל את חיותו מנשמה אלוקית שהיא רוצה לחזור למקורה. השאיפות הרוחניות קיימות – אך השאלה הגדולה האם האדם מכירם ומבטא אותם כראוי.

לפי זה, מובן מדוע התורה משתמש דווקא במילה 'אדם כי יקריב', בכדי שנזכר בבריאת האדם שמורכב מעפר ורוח, ונבין את נקודת המוצא הבסיסית כי קיימת בו שאיפה לקרבת אלוקים.

מחשבה ראויה

נחזור לקין והבל, אם שניהם הביאו מעצמם את הקרבן מדוע הקב"ה קיבל את של הבל ודחה את של קין?

על כך אומר שפת האמת:

"ויש לומר עוד כי עיקר הקרבן הוא שיסמוך האדם עצמו על הקרבן, ושעל ידי זה ידבק עצמו בהשי"ת, כי אין הקרבן עיקר המכוון, רק שהוא גורם התדבקות לקונו, וזה שכתב "הביא גם הוא", גם את עצמו עם הקרבן, ולכן נתקבל לפני השי"ת"

(בראשית תרל"ה)

נלמד מכאן יסוד חשוב, הקרבן אינו טקס טכני, אלא הוא בראש ובראשונה ביטוי לתנועה נפשית שהאדם צריך לעבור. התורה מתארת כי "הבל הביא גם הוא" קרבן, והכוונה שהוא הביא את עצמו לכך, כל כולו היה בתוך תהליך התקרבות לה', לעומת קין שרק 'סימן וי' וניסה להשקיט את ההשתוקקות הטבעית. בהלכות הקרבנות אפילו המחשבה היא קריטית, ומחשבה שאינה מענייני הקרבן פסלת את הקרבן והופכת אותו לפיגול. זאת, כיוון שההבאה היא תהליך רוחני ולא צד טקסי חיצוני.

קרבנות בימינו

לצערנו, אין היום ביהמ"ק להבאת קרבנות, אבל העיקרון הרוחני שלהם עוד רלוונטי בימינו. גם כיום, אנו עדיין מורכבים מגוף ורוח, וקיימת בנו שאיפה רוחנית לקרבת אלוקים. את הביטוי לשאיפות רוחניות עלינו לבטא בתפילות שתוקנו זכר לקרבנות. שהרי בתפילה האדם עומד לפני ה', וצריך לעבור תהליך רוחני כפי שהיה עובר בהבאת הקרבן. וכן, כל מעשה שהאדם מביא את עצמו עבור הקודש הוא בבחינת קרבן.

יהי רצון שנזכה לבטא כראוי את ההשתוקקות הרוחנית שלנו כבני אדם לקרבת אלוקים

שבת שלום

 

 

 

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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