חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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דבר תורה לפרשת יתרו – מה פשר הגעת יתרו

בהגעת יתרו למחנה ישראל אנו מוצאים שתי מחלוקות מעניינות.

  1. נחלקו על זמן הגעתו: "איתמר: בני ר' חייא ור' יהושע בן לוי, חד אמר: יתרו קודם מתן תורה היה, וחד אמר: יתרו אחר מתן תורה היה" (זבחים קט"ז, ע"א).
  • ויש לשאול – מה פשר המחלוקת? האם הם נחלקו בעובדות?
  1. נחלקו על סיבת הגעתו: "וישמע יתרו – במכילתא מה שמועה שמע ובא – מלחמת עמלק דברי ר' יהושע, ר"א המודעי אומר מתן תורה שמע ובא, ר"א אומר קריעת ים סוף שמע ובא".
  • ויש לשאול – מאי נפקא-מינא בין כל דעה ודעה?

קין מול הבל

ננסה לענות על שאלות אלו ע"פ דברי הזוהר:

" ועם כל זה מפני שרצה משה לכסות על ערות אביו, לקח לו לאשה את בת יתרו, שנאמר בו ובני קני חותן משה, ולמה נקרא יתרו קני, משום שנפרד מקין, (ועם כל זה), אף על פי שקין הרג להבל, שהבל הוא משה, מכל מקום חזר משה לתקן את קין שנתדבק בו הערב רב, שהוא ערות אדם הראשון מחמת החטא דעץ הדעת, ורצה משה למחוק הזוהמא הזאת שהיא ערות אביו אדם הראשון, ועל כן לקח לאשה את בת יתרו שהיה גלגול קין, ובזה שלקח את בתו תקן אותו ודחה ממנו את הזוהמא…" (בראשית רפו, ועיין שם עוד)

הזוהר מחדש כי משה ויתרו הם גלגוליהם של הבל וקין, והחיבור של משה בבת יתרו הוא בעצם חיבור של הבל אל אחיו קין שרצח אותו בעבר (!) ומה גרם לקין לרצוח את אחיו? חטא אדם הראשון באכילת עץ הדעת הביא עליו את "הזוהמא" – קנאה משוללת רסן, ואת הרצון לחטוא וממילא לרצוח.

 

כלומר, קיימת ניגודיות בשורש בין הבל לקין, שהרי להבל יש את הסגולה הטהורה מאדם הראשון, וקין הוא "פרי הבאושים" בעקבות החטא, ובחיבור בין משה ליתרו הניגודיות תבוא לידי תיקון שלם. לא בכדי ליתרו יש 7 שמות  – כפי שיש 7 שמות למשה.

לא בכדי יתרו עבד את כל סוגי העבודה זרה בעולם – הסותרות את קדושת התורה שהוריד משה.

לא בכדי יתרו הצליח להתגייר בזכות משה – ומשה בנה את מערכת המשפט בעצת יתרו.

ולא בכדי שניהם יצרו קשר משפחתי.

תיקון העולם

נחזור למחלוקת הראשונה. הגעת יתרו היא בצם השלמת תהליך הגיור והתיקון של יתרו, במדיין משה היה כפוף אליו, וכעת יתרו מגיע עבור משה ("חותן משה"), ולכן, מחלוקת חכמים על זמן הגעת יתרו נסובה על השאלה מה גרם לתיקון השלם של יתרו, וממילא לרעיון שמבטא יתרו בחייו.

  • חד אמר רק בזכות הורדת התורה ניתן לתקן את חטא האדם הראשון, ניתן להשתלם. לכן, יתרו הגיע לאחר מתן תורה.
  • חד אמר שאמנם יתרו נתן את עצתו על מבנה השופטים רק לאחר מתן תורה, כפי שחז"ל למדו שמשה התחיל לשבת ולשפוט את העם החל מחרת יוה"כ. אבל, התיקון של יתרו נעשה לפני הורדת התורה לעולם, בעצם הופעת עם ישראל.

כלומר, ניתן לומר שנחלקו האם התעודה המוסרית היא זו שתוכל לתקן את חטא האדם הראשון, או שמא האם המציאות הכללית של ישראל בעולם היא זו שהובילה את יתרו לתיקון, ותוביל את העולם לתיקון.

סוג השמועה

במחלוקת השנייה, נחלקו חכמים במה שהניע אותו להתגייר.

ר יהושע ציין כי דווקא המלחמה בעמלק היא זו שהובילה אותו לעשות מעשה!  עמלק הוא "ראשית גויים עמלק", הוא כח ההתנגדות הגדולה וההפוכה לישראל, ואם הוא נפל שדוד בפני ישראל – אז יש כאן כח גדול שצריך להצטרף אליו.

ר' אליעזר המודעי אמר שבזכות מתן תורה הגיע יתרו אל ישראל, כאשר ירדה לעולם בגלוי החכמה האלוקית כבר אין צורך מלשאול שאלות.

ור' אליעזר מציין כי כאשר הרוח היא זו שמנהיגה את עולם החומר, כפי שרוח הקדים קרעה את הים – כך צריך לדבוק באומה שמובילה את הרוח שמנשבת בעולם.

 

מכאן מתברר, כי סיפורי התורה, אינם אלא בבועה לעומק רוחני היסטורי. יהי רצון שנזכה להדבק בה, ולגלות את חכמתה.

 

שבת שלום

 

 

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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