חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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דבר תורה לפרשת בשלח – שירת החכמה

מעמד השירה של ישראל לאחר קריעת ים סוף מעיד על המצב הנפשי והרוחני שבו הם היו. התפרצות השירה נבעה משמחה תוססת שאינה יכולה להישאר עוד פנימה בנפשם, ותוכנה של השירה העוסקת בשבח ובהלל לרבש"ע מלמדת כי זוהי שמחת קודש, שמחה על גילוי ההשגחה העליונה.

השאלה מתבקשת לשאול היא:

  • מה גרם כעת לבנ"י להתרגש כ"כ? הרי כמעט שנה שלמה הם ראו את יד ה' מכה במצרים עשר פעמים.

בנוסף, גם המדרש הבא מעלה תמיהה!

אז ישיר משה, הדא הוא דכתיב (משלי ל"א) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה, מיום שברא הקב"ה את העולם ועד שעמדו ישראל על הים לא מצינו אדם שאמר שירה להקב"ה אלא ישראל, ברא אדם הראשון ולא אמר שירה, הציל אברהם מכבשן האש ומן המלכים ולא אמר שירה, וכן יצחק מן המאכלת ולא אמר שירה, וכן יעקב מן המלאך ומן עשו ומן אנשי שכם ולא אמר שירה, כיון שבאו ישראל לים ונקרע להם מיד אמרו שירה לפני הקב"ה, שנאמר אז ישיר משה ובני ישראל, הוי פיה פתחה בחכמה. אמר הקב"ה לאלו הייתי מצפה, ואין אז אלא שמחה, שנאמר (תהלים קכ"ו) אז ימלא שחוק פינו.
(מדרש רבה כג ד)

חז"ל נותנים סקירה היסטורית, ומגלים כי מאז בריאת העולם, זוהי פעם ראשונה שבו נאמרת שירה עבור הא-ל. אדם הראשון, אבות האומה לא אמרו שירה אפילו לאחר הצלתם (!) והשירה הראשונה בהיסטוריה הנאמרת ע"י בנ"י נמשלת לחכמה היוצאת בפיהם.

ומתבקש לשאול:

  • מדוע באמת לא נאמרה שירה לפני כן?
  • ומדוע השירה מכונה חכמה? איזו מן חכמה יש כאן?

ראשית חכמה יראת ה'

התורה מתארת את הגורמים לאמירת השירה:

"וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַיָּד הַגְּדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה ה' בְּמִצְרַיִם, וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם אֶת ה' וַיַּאֲמִינוּ בַה' וּבְמֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ"

פעולת ראיית יד ה' הביאה לידי יראה ואמונה אצל ישראל – דבר שלא היה לפני כן! ואם תשאל: "ומה היה עד כה? האם הם לא האמינו בה' בהכותו את מצרים?" תשובה: אכן, הם ידעו שיש בורא, הם ייחלו תמיד למושיע שיוציא אותם ממצרים, א-ב-ל הם לא היו בדרגת אמונה אלא בידיעה!

די מוזר, לא?

על כך אומר השם משמואל:

"ונראה דהנה תכלית האדם בעולם הזה היא האמונה, היינו להיות נמשך אחר השי"ת אפילו בלי הארת השכל, ובשביל זה זוכין לעולם הבא תכלית האור כי טוב… ותכלית הידיעה אשר לא נדע, וישוב הכל לאמונה, ובשביל האמונה יבא להשגות עוד יותר גדולות, ויבין וידע יותר שעדיין לא התחיל לידע…"

בפירוש חופשי אומר השם משמואל שאמונה זוהי הנקודה הפנימית בקרב האדם שמחברת אותו עם בוראו – וזוהי משימת האדם, לחשוף את אותו קשר נצחי בינו לבין בוראו. וככל שהאדם יודע על גדלות ה' ועל מפעליו, הוא צריך לדעת שהוא בעצם לא יודע כלום… ואז יתחזק הקשר בינו לבין הקב"ה.

יוצא שאמונה היא לא אוסף של ידיעות, אמונה היא לא תקווה ושאיפה אלא חיבור עמוק עם רבש"ע, חיבור שנוצר בעצם בריאת האדם, ועל האדם לחשוף אותן במהלך חייו.

בנ"י הגיעו ליראה שהובילה לאמונה, לכן חכמים מכנים את שירת הים לחכמה, כיוון שהחכמה הגדולה ביותר היא להגיע לאמונה – לנקודה שאינה בהכרה השכלית, אלא מעבר לזה.

שירת האבות

אבות האומה ייסדו את אמונת הבורא בקרב עם ישראל. אמונת ראש המאמינים, אברהם אבינו, סללה את הדרך לאמונה התמימה של היהודים שהביאה לידי השירה, כפי שמובא במדרש רבה:

"א"ר שמעון בר אבא בשביל האמנה שהאמין אברהם להקב"ה, שנאמר והאמין בה', ממנה זכו ישראל לומר שירה על הים, שנאמר אז ישיר משה, הוי תשורי מראש אמנה".
(שם שם ו)

האבות האמינו, אך לא שרו, כיוון שבשביל שירה צריך לייסד מציאות כללית שלמה, וזוהי כמות ישראל ביציאתם ממצרים בסך של 60 ריבוא. מתוך המציאות הכללית, יכלו אח"כ יחידי הסגולה לומר שירה. משה שמשול כנגד כל ישראל, ודוד שמקבל את אורו מכנסת ישראל, וכן על זה הדרך.

יהי רצון שנזכה להגיע לדרגת האמונה המביאה לידי השירה

שבת שלום

 

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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