חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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דבר תורה לפרשת חוקת – מה בין פרה אדומה לאמירת הקדיש?

התרבות בימינו מאתגרת את המאמין המבקש להצדיק את מעשיו ולהסביר את אמונתו באופן עמוק וערכי. אחד מסממני התרבות הוא הרצון לרדת לעומקם של דברים ולהבין את משמעותם. האדם המודרני מבקש לפעול בחייו מתוך מודעות והבנה רציונאלית, ולהימנע מעשייה כל זמן שאינו מבין את משמעותה. למאמין קל להזדהות עם המצוות המבטאות ערכים אוניברסליים ('משפטים'), כדוגמת: איסורי גניבה ורציחה וכיבוד הורים. אולם מצוות התורה הרחוקות מהבנה אנושית ('חוקים'), כדוגמת: פרה אדומה, שעטנז ובשר וחלב משאירות את המאמין – 'בסימן שאלה'.

שלמה המלך ניסה להיכנס לעובי הקורה ולפצח את טעמי חוקי התורה, אך במצוות פרה אדומה הוא נתקל בחומה בצורה. ועל כך דרשו חז"ל: "אמר שלמה על כל אלה עמדתי, ופרשה של פרה אדומה חקרתי ושאלתי ופשפשתי, 'אָמַרְתִּי אֶחְכָּמָה וְהִיא רְחוֹקָה מִמֶּנִּי' (במ"ר יט, ג).

באופן עמוק, ניתן לראות כי מעלתה של מצוות פרה אדומה נובעת דווקא בסודה המטהר את טומאת אבי אבות הטומאה – המת. אחד מיסודות האמונה הוא שעולם החומר ועולם הרוח שזורים זה בזה, וטומאה גופנית מבטאת רובד של טומאה רוחנית-מוסרית העומדת ביסודה. התורה מסתכלת אל תוככי נפש האדם, ועל מקרה בו יכול להיוולד ספק אמוני או קלקול מוסרי תוטל טומאה. קו רעיוני מתוח בין סוג הטומאה לבין תהליך הטהרה המיועד לה, כאשר הצד המעשי בתהליך הטהרה נותן מענה גם לטהרה המוסרית הנדרשת לאדם.

לאור הנחתנו, מובן מדוע טומאת המת היא הטומאה החמורה ביותר. האנושות כולה עומדת בפני שוקת שבורה בהתמודדות עם המוות. מרגע שגורשו אדם וחווה מגן-עדן ירדה מיתה לעולם, ובן אנוש אינו אלא בן-מוות, "עֵת לָלֶדֶת וְעֵת לָמוּת" (קהלת, ג, ב). המפגש עם המת יכול להרעיד את אמות הסיפים של בניין  אמונת האדם בבוראו. השכול והצער מעוררים את האדם לשאול ולברר: "מדוע זה קרה דווקא לנפטר? האם אין צדק בעולם? האם העולם מתנהל כ'רולטה רוסית' – ולית דין ולית דיין"?

כתשובה לספקות אלו מופיעה מצוות פרה אדומה. כניסת טמא המת דווקא בשערה של היטהרות המשוללת כל טעם רציונאלי, מחזקת את יסודות בניין האמונה. בשונה מפעולות בהן האדם פועל מכוח טעמן, חוקת פרה אדומה אמורה להקנות לאדם את מידת הענווה, ומכפיפה את קומת שכלו בפני דרכי הא-ל. יכולת האדם לחקור את הנהגת ה' בעולמו מוגבלת היא, ועל בקשת משה מהאלוקים: "הוֹדִעֵנִי נָא אֶת דְּרָכֶךָ וְאֵדָעֲךָ", השיב ה': "כִּי לֹא יִרְאַנִי הָאָדָם וָחָי". ראיית והבנת שיקולי הנהגת החכמה האלוקית נסתרות הן לבר אנוש כל עוד נשמת ה' באפו (ע"פ ברכות ז, א). ועל כך התנבא ישעיה באומרו: "כִּי לֹא מַחְשְׁבוֹתַי מַחְשְׁבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם דְּרָכָי נְאֻם ה'" (ישעיה נה, ח).

אין ביכולתנו לענות על השאלות שמתעוררות בעקבות המפגש עם המוות. אולם, ההיטהרות על ידי פרה אדומה מלמדת, שכשם שעשייה זו מתקיימת רק מכוח גזרת שמים וללא הבנת שכל אנוש, כך המוות הוא גזרת שמים ללא יכולת הבנת האדם. בקיום חוקת הפרה הטמא מעיד כי חרף המפגש עם המוות הוא נשאר נאמן לאמונתו, ועשיית גזרת הא-ל – הלא מובנת – מצהירה על הצדקת הדין: "הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵ-ל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא" (דברים לב, ד).

רעיון זה מתבטא גם באמירת הקדיש של האבלים. באופן זה, האבלים מעידים בפרהסיה כי על אף שנמתחה עליהם מידת הדין שהטילה מוות במשפחתם, אמונתם בבורא ובהנהגתו בעולם אינה נסדקה. כהוכחה לכך הם מגדלים ומקדשים ברבים את שמו של האלוקים באומרם: "יִתְגַּדַּל וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא". הגדולה של האלוקים מתבטאת גם במקומות בהם קטנה דעתנו מלהבין את דרכיו. דברינו מבררים את מעלתה של אמירת הקדיש. על ידי חיזוק אמונת האבלים בה' ובהשגחתו על ברואיו, נגרם נחת רוח לנשמת הנפטר.

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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