חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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דבר תורה לפרשת בהר – מה עניין שמיטה אצל הר סיני?

 

פרשתנו מתחילה בנושא השמיטה, כאשר התורה מדגישה את מקור המצווה: "וַיְדַבֵּר ה' אֶל מֹשֶׁה בְּהַר סִינַי לֵאמֹר דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם וְשָׁבְתָה הָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַה'".

רש"י על הפסוק שואל את שאלתו המפורסמת: "מה עניין שמיטה אצל הר סיני, והלא כל המצות נאמרו מסיני?" ותירוצו הוא: "אלא מה שמיטה נאמרו כללותיה ופרטותיה ודקדוקיה מסיני, אף כולן נאמרו כללותיהן ודקדוקיהן מסיני, כך שנויה בתורת כהנים".

כלומר, לדעת רש"י התורה באה ללמדנו שחלילה לא נחשוב שחלק ממצוות התורה לא ניתנו ע"י הקב"ה, אלא הם חידושיו של משה רבנו. לכן, באה התורה ומדגישה כי כל המצוות ניתנו מסיני כמו שמצוות השמיטה.

אך עדיין מתבקש לשאול:

  • מדוע נבחרה דווקא מצוות השמיטה ללמד זאת? הרי ניתן לבחור מצווה אחרת.

קשר של חיים

מצוות השמיטה היא מיוחדת בכך שהיא עוסקת ביחסי גומלין בין ארץ לבין העם היושב עליה. ומי שמע דבר כזה בכל העולם? הרי אנו מכירים דתות שיש להם כל מיני מנהגים וטקסים, אך אצל אף אחת לא מתקיים קשר בין מאמיני אותה דת לבין מקום המגורים שלהם, כי העיקר בשבילם להאמין.

 

אצל עם ישראל, הקשר לארץ ישראל הוא קשר של חיים! החיים בארץ אינם לא אמצעי אלא מטרה, כפי שמלמד זאת הרב קוק:

"אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵינֶנָּהּ דָּבָר חִיצוֹנִי, קִנְיָן חִיצוֹנִי לָאֻמָּה, רַק בְּתוֹר אֶמְצָעִי לַמַּטָּרָה שֶׁל הַהִתְאַגְּדוּת הַכְּלָלִית וְהַחְזָקָת קִיוּמָהּ הֶחָמְרִי אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הָרוּחָנִי. אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל הִיא חֲטִיבָה עַצְמוּתִית קְשׁוּרָה בְּקֶשֶׁר חַיִּים עִם הָאֻמָּה, חֲבוּקָה בִּסְגֻלוֹת פְּנִימִיּוֹת עִם מְצִיאוּתָהּ".

אצל עמים אחרים, הארץ מאפשרת התקבצות לחיי מדינה ולכינון חיי תרבות.  ללא ארץ, כנוודים, לא ניתן להקים מדינה. ואם תשאלו אותם מהי בשבילם ארצם –  יענו, על קשר היסטורי רב שנים, רגשי וסמלי. אך אין דבר מהותי בהתגוררותם שם.

 

בישראל יש קשר של חיים לארץ ישראל. לא בכדי חז"ל מתארים כי הגאולה תתבטא כאשר ארץ ישראל תתן את פירותיה  (סנהדרין צח:), שישראל יחזרו לארצם, 'הגוויה' של הארץ תתעורר מתרדמתה רבת השנים- ותתחיל לחיות ולהניב פירות.

זכינו לראות זאת בדורנו, וזהו פשוט מדהים!

שלמות

המהר"ל מסביר מדוע דווקא הארץ צריכה מנוחה:

" אמנם השמטה שהיא לארץ מה שלא נמצא לשום ארץ, ודבר זה מצד הארץ עצמה, כי ראוי לארץ השמיטה, וזה כי ארץ ישראל אשר לא תחסר כל בה, והיא הארץ השלימה בכל, כמו שאמר הכתוב עליה "ארץ אשר לא תחסר כל בה", ודבר זה כנגד שאר ארצות שהם חסרים, אך ארץ ישראל בלבד שאינה חסירה והיא שלימה, והדבר שהוא שלם ראוי אליו השביתה והמנוחה, ודבר זה דומה אל ישראל, כי מצד שלימותם יש להם השבת והמנוחה, ודבר זה נתבאר למעלה ענין השביתה שהיא לישראל, כי כל מי שאין לו מנוחה לא הגיע אל השלימות, ולכך הוא מתנועע, שכבר התבאר אצל אם למדת תורה הרבה שהמתנועע הוא בכח, והדבר שהוא בפועל לגמרי אין לו התנועה, שהיא שייכת אל הדבר שהוא בכח, וכאשר הושלם הוא בפועל, ולפיכך כל זמן שלא הושלם העולם ולא היה בפועל לא קנה המנוחה עד שהושלם ולא היה אז בכח, אז קנה המנוחה. והנה תראה כי המנוחה שייכת אל דבר שהושלם והוא בפועל, ואז הוא בעל מנוחה… וכך הארץ צריכה שתשבות, שאם היה בה מלאכה היה מורה שהיא חסירה השלימות, ולכך היא במלאכה התמידית, ולא תבא לכלל המנוחה, ולכך כתיב שבת שבתון יהיה לארץ, שיהיה לארץ עצמה שביתה, ודבר זה מודיע מעלת הארץ"

 

ניתן להסביר את דבריו באופן הבא: אדם שחסר לו משהו, הוא כל הזמן בתנועה מתמדת בשביל להשיג את מטרתו. אולם, ברגע שהוא מגיע לשלמות, יש לו אפשרות סוף סוף לנוח. כך ארץ ישראל היא שלמה, לעומת שאר הארצות. השלמות היא לא רק דבר גשמי (שיש בה) , אלא קיימת בה שלמות רעיונית. לכן, התייחדה הארץ שקיבלה שבתון, כשם שישראל שהם "שלמים" מצד מהותם קיבלו את השבת והמנוחה.

מעלת הארץ

יוצא למעשה, שאכן כל מצווה יכלה ללמד אותנו שהיא נאמרה בסיני כשם ששאר המצוות. אולם, החידוש הגדול כי ארץ ישראל היא לא דבר גשמי, אלא מהות רוחנית – את זה צריך ללמד בהר סיני.

שנזכה לחיות את הפסוק: "טובה הארץ מאד מאד"

שבת שלום

 

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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