חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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דבר תורה לפרשת תרומה – לקיחה שהיא נתינה

פרשת השבוע עוסקת בתרומת בני ישראל לצורך מלאכת המשכן. וכבר בפסוק השני אנו נתקלים בקושי לשוני בולט. וכך נאמר:

"דַּבֵּר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְיִקְחוּ-לִי תְּרוּמָה: מֵאֵת כָּל-אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ, תִּקְחוּ אֶת-תְּרוּמָתִי"

בעברית תקינה היה צריך להיכתב "ויתנו לי תרומה"! שהרי אדם נותן תרומה ולא לוקח! בדברים שהם שייכים לנו אנו לוקחים אותם, ואם אנו רוצים להעבירם לאחרים אנו בעצם נותנים להם. אז איך ניתן לפשט את הקושי?

הכל מה'

באופן פשוט, ניתן לתרץ שאין כאן כלל קושי לשוני, כיוון שהכל מה'. הקב"ה לוקח מה שבעצם שלו, וכך נאמר במדרש (אגדה):

"ויקחו לי – כתיב 'לי הכסף ולי הזהב נאום ה' צבאות' – אמר הקב"ה לישראל: התנדבו ועשו המשכן, ואל תאמרו מכיסכם אתם נותנים דבר, כי משלי הוא הכל – לפיכך אמר 'ויקחו לי' – משלי".

ויסוד אמוני זה מתחזק גם בדברי המשנה באבות (אבות ג ז):

"תן לו משלו [=תן לקב"ה תרומה מכספו שלו], שאתה ושלך שלו [=שהרי גם אתה וגם כספך שייכים לקב"ה], וכן בדוד הוא אומר: כי ממך הכל ומידך נתנו לך".

לקיחה שהיא נתינה

אך אם נעמיק בנושא, ניתן לומר כי ביסוד נתינה התרומה עומדת לקיחה לאדם. כלומר, בפועל האדם נותן משהו משלו לאחר, אבל בגלל שרעיון ערכי עומד מאחורי הנתינה אז האדם מקבל ממנו. יש כאן פעולה דו כיוונית:  העברת דבר מהאדם אל החוץ, ובו זמנית האדם בעצמו נתרם מהפעולה הערכית.

אין מדובר בהכרח על תרומה מוחשית שהאדם מקבל לאחר שנתן, אלא גם השתייכותו לדבר גדול וחשוב נחשבת. לעניינו, אומר הקב"ה: בעצם מעשה התרומה – אתם, בנ"י תהיו נתרמים! ובאמצעות התרומה למלאכת הקודש אתם לוקחים חלק מבניית מקור השראת שכינה לעולם – משכן ה'.

בין תורם לנותן

צריכים אנו לדעת כי הכוונה העומדת מאחורי המעשה הטכני – משפיעה על  טיבו וערכו. לא כל מי שנותן כסף רב לעמותות רווחה הוא בהכרח יחשב 'התורם האידיאלי'. השאלה הגדולה היא מה מניע את אותו אדם לתת את הכסף והזהב? האם מדובר על דרך להשגת כבוד ומעמד ציבורי או שמא הדבר נבע מאידיאליסטיות?

התורה מלמדת בפרשתנו: "מֵאֵת כָּל-אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ – תִּקְחוּ אֶת-תְּרוּמָתִי ". מתי ייחשב כתרומה? כאשר לבו של האדם אכן רוצה לתת כי הוא משתייך לערך של הנתינה. על כך חז"ל במקום אחר קובעים: "אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוון את ליבו לשמים" (מסכת מנחות).  כמובן שכמות הנתינה חשובה, אך האיכות נקבעת לפי הכוונה. וזאת, כאמור צריך לעשות לשם שמים.

לכן, אדם שנותן כסף רב מאינטרסים אישיים ייחשב כנותן צדקה אך לא כתורם. על נתינת צדקה הצומחת משאיפה פרטית אחרת קובעת הגמרא (פסחים ח): "האומר (הנני נותן) "סלע (סכום כסף) זה לצדקה בשביל שיחיה בני", הרי זה צדיק גמור". למרות שהנתינה 'לא טהורה' היא עדיין נחשבת צדקה חשובה ויש להעריך זאת, ולכן נחשב כצדיק! אך, להגדרת 'תורם' הוא לא ייכנס, כיוון ששם הדגש הוא לא על הכמות אלא על האיכות – כוונת האדם.

יהי רצון שתהיה מנת חלקנו באלו התורמים לשם שמים במעשיהם וברוחם

שבת שלום

 

 

 

 

 

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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