חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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דבר תורה לפרשת יתרו – בין תורת ישראל לחוכמות העולם

בפרשתנו נקרא על מעמד הר סיני והורדת התורה לעולם. לאירוע ייחודי זה אין שני לו במהלך ההיסטוריה. ספרים רבים מצביעים על מתן תורה כאחד מאבני השתייה של האמונה היהודית. התגלות הבורא לעיני רבבות והורדת התורה לעולם מעידות כי יש 'בעל בית לבירה', ויש תעודה לעולם.

דווקא בשל חשיבות המאורע, תחילת הפרשה מעלה מספר שאלות:

  • הכיצד משה, איש האלוקים (תהילים צ) נזקק לקבל ייעוץ ארגוני כיצד לנהל את מערכת המשפט בישראל ע"י כומר בכיר לשעבר, יתרו?
  • האם אין כאן טעם לפגם? הרי התורה היא אלוקית מכילה הכל ('הפוך בה והפוך בה דכולא בה'), ומדוע מוריד התורה נזקק לעזרה של בן אנוש ועוד כזה שניסה את כל עבודות הזרות שהיו באותה תקופה?
  • מדוע דווקא בשבת חתן של עם ישראל עם הקב"ה ('ביום חתונתו – זה יום מתן תורה'), צריך להעכיר את האווירה בדמות המקרה הזה?

לדוגמא – איך היינו מרגישים אם האפיפיור היה מגיע לרב קוק זצ"ל ומייעץ לו כיצד לנהל את הרבנות הראשית לישראל שזה עתה ייסד? סביר להניח שלא מתלהבים בלשון המעטה, אז כל שכן שגדול נביאי ישראל מקבל עזרה מבר אנוש בדמות כומר לשעבר.

חכמה בגויים תאמין – תורה אל תאמין

בשפה הישיבתית היו משתמשים בתירוץ – 'היא הנותנת'.

כלומר, לא בכדי בפרשת מתן תורה אנו נפגשים בעצתו המעשית של יתרו למשה. התורה באה ללמדנו את היחס הנכון בין התורה ובין חכמת הטבע. אומנם, התורה היא השלמה מוסרית לעולם וקיומה היא תכלית העולם ('בראשית ברא – בשביל תורה שנקראת ראשית'), אולם אין היא באה להחליף את מדרגת הטבע, אלא רק לבנות מעליה קומה רוחנית ומוסרית יותר. לא להרוס את הקיים בטבע האדם, אלא לשדרג על גביו תוכן רוחני.

חכמה זוהי היכולת לזהות את החוקיות בעולם ולדעת כיצד היא מתנהלת ובאיזה אופן להשתמש בה. כך ישנן הרבה 'חכמות', כדוגמת: רפואה, מדעים המדויקים, הנדסה, מדעי החברה וכו'. בתחומים אלו ניתן ואף רצוי לשמוע מה יש לחכמי העולם ללמד אותנו בתחומם – 'חכמה בגויים תאמין'.

אולם, בשאלות הנוגעות לתחום המוסר והרוח, עולם האתיקה והערכים, שאלות העוסקות במהות ובזהות האדם ובייעודו – 'תורה אל תאמין'. קיבלנו תורה מן השמים בכדי להתנהל ע"פ הדרכה אלוקית.

משל לאדם שיש לו פסנתר מקולקל והוא הזמין טכנאי לתקן את הקלידים. יש רשות לאותו טכנאי לתקן כל מה שצריך בכדי שהפסנתר יעבוד כמו שצריך, אולם אין לו להתערב בשאלות: איזו מנגינות יש לנגן, ומהן משמעויות השירים אותן נרצה לשיר. כך הנמשל: החוכמות שבעולם מועילות לתיקון חיינו בכלכלה, ברפואה ועוד, אך אל להן להיכנס אל הקודש פנימה ולומר לנו: בשביל מה לחיות, מהם הערכים הרצויים ומה הסדר שלהם, היחס בין פרט לכלל, בין אדם לחברו, בין אדם למשפחתו וכו' – קיבלנו תורה בשביל כך.

יהי רצון שנזכה להבחין תמיד בין חכמה לבין תורה, ונדע לברור מוץ מתבן בכל תחום שנלמד.

שבת שלום

 

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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