חיפוש במערכת החדשה
שיעורים לפי נושאים
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פרשת מסעי – גיבוש הזהות הלאומית

בפרשתנו האחרונה בחומש במדבר מובא סיכום מסודר של מסעות בני ישראל. התורה מקדישה ארבעים ותשעה (!) פסוקים לתיאור המסעות, ומגדילה לעשות בכתיבתה כל מקום חנייה פעמיים. המקום מוזכר כשישראל הגיעו לחנות בו, ומצוין בשנית ביציאתם ממנו אל היעד החדש, כדוגמת: "וַיִּסְעוּ מֵאֵילִם; וַיַּחֲנוּ, עַל-יַם-סוּף.  וַיִּסְעוּ מִיַּם-סוּף; וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּמִדְבַּר-סִין" (במדבר לג , י-יא)

שאלות גדולות עולות נוכח קריאת פסוקים אלו:

  • מה ראתה התורה לציין בשנית את המסעות שכבר נפגשנו איתם?
  • אם כבר הוחלט לציין את מקום החניות, מדוע לא לכתוב בקיצור? הרי הנחה ידועה היא כי התורה מקצרת בלשונה, כפי שתואר בגמרא: "מקרא מועט והלכות מרובות" (חגיגה, יא, א).
  • מדוע הנהיגו חלק מבני אשכנז לקרוא את פסוקי המסעות בטעמים שקוראים את קריאת ים סוף? וכי אפשר להשוות נס המשדד את מערכות הטבע אל מול מסעות המדבר הרגילים?!

מסע מכיל בקרבו מטרה ראשית שלשמה הוא התחיל, ואלמלא הימצאותה רעיון המסע לא היה קורם עור וגידים. פנים רבות קיימות לתכלית המסע. בעוד שישנם מסעות שמטרתם תושג רק בסופם, כדוגמת הגעה לחוף מבטחים או פגישה עם קרוב משפחה, קיימים מסעות שמטרתם מושגת כבר בעצם היציאה למסע, כדוגמת צבירת חווית והיכרות עם תרבויות חדשות.

בענייננו, יציאת עם ישראל ממצרים נועדה להשגת מטרת הבורא: "וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם לִי לְעָם, וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵא-לֹהִים…" (שמות ו,ז), ולמימוש חזונו: "וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ" (שמות יט, ו). לשם כך, כבר במצרים משה הדגיש לבני ישראל כי לצורך בניית ממלכה היעד של המסע הוא ברור – ארץ ישראל: "וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם, אֶל-הָאָרֶץ, אֲשֶׁר נָשָׂאתִי אֶת-יָדִי…" (שמות ו, ח).

באופן עמוק, מלבד המטרה להגיע לארץ המובטחת, המסע במדבר מכיל בקרבו גם מטרה פנימית שתושג בכל יום בחיי המסע – גיבוש הזהות הלאומית. כל מאורע וקושי הצריך מהעם לברר את זהותו ואת ההשתייכות לתעודתו. לעיתים רבות, חלק מההתבגרות של האומה היה בבדיקת הגבולות ושבירת המוסכמות. הנפילות היו בבחינת קטליזטור שהעמיקו את יסודות האומה השואפת לגלות לאנושות את צלם האלוקים שבאדם.

דרך סיכום החוזר של המסעות, התורה מבליטה את קיומה של המטרה הפנימית שהתלוותה לכל המסעות. התיאור המורחב מדגיש את חיוניותו של כל מקום בבניית גיבוש הזהות הלאומית, לרבות הכניסה אליו והיציאה ממנו. כשם שהגעת אדם למקום חדש מצריכה ממנו הסתגלות כל שהיא למאפייני המקום, כך גם הניתוק מהמקום והיציאה אל עבר יעד חדש דורשת משאב נפשי ובירור מחשבתי. באופן עמוק, לא דומה האדם בכניסתו ליציאתו. חניות ישראל במדבר נבחרו על ידי ההנהגה האלוקית בכדי שהעם ייפגש ויתמודד בכניסתו וביציאתו עם מאפייני המקומות. איננו יודעים את תוצאות כל מפגש בין ישראל למקום החנייה, אולם ציון שם המקום מעיד כי 'משהו חדש נרכש שם'…

קריעת ים סוף רוממה את ישראל למדרגת אמונה כה גבוהה עד אשר העיד עליהם הכתוב: "וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם אֶת ה' וַיַּאֲמִינוּ בַּה' וּבְמֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ" (שמות יד, לא). אולם, לא די בכך עבור בניית עם שעל כתפיו מונחת תעודת העולם! ברק אמוני נותן דחיפה משמעותית ו"מיישר את ההגה" בניווט ההתחלתי בדרך. לאורך זמן השפעת הברק תפחת וספקות יחלו לצוץ. בשלב זה מתבקש ליבון פנימי ובירור שכלי אודות הדרך שנבחרה – ולכך נועדו מסעות המדבר.

בכך מתברר, כי קריעת ים סוף ומסעות ישראל במדבר משלימים זה את זו, ועל ידי קריאת שני העניינים בטעמי מקרא זהים נוכל להכיר כי מבט אמוני ובירור נפשי ושכלי צריכים להשתלב זה בזה.

נכתב על ידי הרב יוגב כהן

 

שיעורים אחרונים:

בלנית, כן או לא?

טהרת הטבילה במים אחד האירועים המרגשים והמשמחים בחיי הזוגיות הוא ליל הטבילה, בו שבים בני הזוג לשמוח יחד בחיבור גופני המצטרף לחיבור

מאחורי הטומאה והטהרה

⬅ כיצד טומאה באה לביטוי בימינו?
⬅ האם ניתן למצוא טעם במצוות הטהרה והטומאה?
⬅ האם יש קשר בין חיים לטהרה ובין טומאה למוות?
⬅ התרחקות ככלי לחידוש הקשר הזוגי
⬅ מה מקור ההבדל בין טומאת נידה לטומאת לידה?

נגיעה בעריות, מתי אסורה ומתי מותרת

מקורות הדין בספרא אחרי מות פרשה ט, יג, מבואר שלא רק גילוי עריות אסור, אלא גם קרבה אל העריות אסורה (אלא שלא

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